Stephen H. Safe, PhD

Adjunct Professor of Oncology, Academic Institute
Houston Methodist


Natural products and synthetic analogs as selective orphan nuclear receptor 4A (NR4A) modulators
Safe, S 2024, , Histology and Histopathology, vol. 39, no. 5, pp. 543-556. https://doi.org/10.14670/HH-18-689

Comparative safety, pharmacokinetics, and off-target assessment of 1,1-bis(3'-indolyl)-1-(p-chlorophenyl) methane in mouse and dog: implications for therapeutic development
Rocha, SM, Gustafson, DL, Safe, S & Tjalkens, RB 2024, , Toxicology Research, vol. 13, no. 2, tfae059. https://doi.org/10.1093/toxres/tfae059

Bis-Indole Derivatives as Dual Nuclear Receptor 4A1 (NR4A1) and NR4A2 Ligands
Upadhyay, S, Hailemariam, AE, Mariyam, F, Hafiz, Z, Martin, G, Kothari, J, Farkas, E, Sivaram, G, Bell, L, Tjalkens, R & Safe, S 2024, , Biomolecules, vol. 14, no. 3, 284. https://doi.org/10.3390/biom14030284

The 2022 world health organization reevaluation of human and mammalian toxic equivalency factors for polychlorinated dioxins, dibenzofurans and biphenyls
DeVito, M, Bokkers, B, van Duursen, MBM, van Ede, K, Feeley, M, Antunes Fernandes Gáspár, E, Haws, L, Kennedy, S, Peterson, RE, Hoogenboom, R, Nohara, K, Petersen, K, Rider, C, Rose, M, Safe, S, Schrenk, D, Wheeler, MW, Wikoff, DS, Zhao, B & van den Berg, M 2024, , Regulatory Toxicology and Pharmacology, vol. 146, 105525, pp. 105525. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.yrtph.2023.105525

Editorial: Emerging anti-cancer compounds and immunomodulators for pancreatic cancer treatment
DelGiorno, KE, Safe, S & Bailey-Lundberg, JM 2024, , Frontiers in Oncology, vol. 14, 1411836, pp. 1411836. https://doi.org/10.3389/fonc.2024.1411836

Flavonoids Quercetin and Kaempferol Are NR4A1 Antagonists and Suppress Endometriosis in Female Mice
Zhang, L, Mohankumar, K, Martin, G, Mariyam, F, Park, Y, Han, SJ & Safe, S 2023, , Endocrinology, vol. 164, no. 10, bqad133. https://doi.org/10.1210/endocr/bqad133

Reciprocal Regulation of Hepatic TGF-ß1 and Foxo1 Controls Gluconeogenesis and Energy Expenditure
Pan, Q, Ai, W, Chen, Y, Kim, DM, Shen, Z, Yang, W, Jiang, W, Sun, Y, Safe, S & Guo, S 2023, , Diabetes, vol. 72, no. 9, pp. 1193-1206. https://doi.org/10.2337/db23-0180

Selective aryl hydrocarbon receptor modulators can act as antidepressants in obese female mice
Debler, RA, Madison, CA, Hillbrick, L, Gallegos, P, Safe, S, Chapkin, RS & Eitan, S 2023, , Journal of Affective Disorders, vol. 333, pp. 409-419. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jad.2023.04.044

Flavone and Hydroxyflavones Are Ligands That Bind the Orphan Nuclear Receptor 4A1 (NR4A1)
Lee, M, Upadhyay, S, Mariyam, F, Martin, G, Hailemariam, A, Lee, K, Jayaraman, A, Chapkin, RS, Lee, SO & Safe, S 2023, , International journal of molecular sciences, vol. 24, no. 9, 8152. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms24098152

Specificity Proteins (Sp) and Cancer
Safe, S 2023, , International journal of molecular sciences, vol. 24, no. 6, 5164. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms24065164

Intestinal epithelium aryl hydrocarbon receptor is involved in stress sensitivity and maintaining depressive symptoms
Madison, CA, Hillbrick, L, Kuempel, J, Albrecht, GL, Landrock, KK, Safe, S, Chapkin, RS & Eitan, S 2023, , Behavioural Brain Research, vol. 440, 114256. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.bbr.2022.114256

Health Benefits of Coffee Consumption for Cancer and Other Diseases and Mechanisms of Action
Safe, S, Kothari, J, Hailemariam, A, Upadhyay, S, Davidson, LA & Chapkin, RS 2023, , International journal of molecular sciences, vol. 24, no. 3, 2706. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms24032706

Bis-indole-derived NR4A1 antagonists inhibit colon tumor and splenic growth and T-cell exhaustion
Mohankumar, K, Wright, G, Kumaravel, S, Shrestha, R, Zhang, L, Abdelrahim, M, Chapkin, RS & Safe, S 2023, , Cancer Immunology, Immunotherapy, vol. 72, no. 12, pp. 3985-3999. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00262-023-03530-3

Piperlongumine is a ligand for the orphan nuclear receptor 4A1 (NR4A1)
Zhang, L, Martin, G, Mohankumar, K, Wright, GA, Mariyam, F & Safe, S 2023, , Frontiers in Pharmacology, vol. 14, 1223153. https://doi.org/10.3389/fphar.2023.1223153

The Role of the Aryl Hydrocarbon Receptor (AhR) and Its Ligands in Breast Cancer
Safe, S & Zhang, L 2022, , Cancers, vol. 14, no. 22, 5574. https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers14225574

Structure-activity relationships among mono- and dihydroxy flavones as aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) agonists or antagonists in CACO2 cells
Park, H, Jin, UH, Martin, G, Chapkin, RS, Davidson, LA, Lee, K, Jayaraman, A & Safe, S 2022, , Chemico-Biological Interactions, vol. 365, 110067, pp. 110067. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cbi.2022.110067

Resveratrol Binds Nuclear Receptor 4A1 (NR4A1) and Acts as an NR4A1 Antagonist in Lung Cancer Cells
Zhang, L, Martin, G, Mohankumar, K, Hampton, JT, Liu, WR & Safe, S 2022, , Molecular Pharmacology, vol. 102, no. 2, pp. 80-91. https://doi.org/10.1124/molpharm.121.000481

3,3'-Diindolylmethane and 1,4-dihydroxy-2-naphthoic acid prevent chronic mild stress induced depressive-like behaviors in female mice
Madison, CA, Kuempel, J, Albrecht, GL, Hillbrick, L, Jayaraman, A, Safe, S, Chapkin, RS & Eitan, S 2022, , Journal of Affective Disorders, vol. 309, pp. 201-210. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jad.2022.04.106

Plant Alkaloid Tetrandrine Is a Nuclear Receptor 4A1 Antagonist and Inhibits Panc-1 Cell Growth In Vitro and In Vivo
Lee, HS, Kim, DH, Lee, IS, Park, JH, Martin, G, Safe, S, Kim, KJ, Kim, JH, Jang, BI & Lee, SO 2022, , International journal of molecular sciences, vol. 23, no. 9, 5280. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms23095280

Loss of aryl hydrocarbon receptor suppresses the response of colonic epithelial cells to IL22 signaling by upregulating SOCS3
Han, H, Davidson, LA, Fan, YY, Landrock, KK, Jayaraman, A, Safe, SH & Chapkin, RS 2022, , American Journal of Physiology - Gastrointestinal and Liver Physiology, vol. 322, no. 1, pp. G93-G106. https://doi.org/10.1152/AJPGI.00074.2021