Muthuraju Sangu

Muthuraju Sangu, PhD

Instructor in Radiology, Academic Institute
Houston Methodist


My doctorate thesis research was concerning high altitude physiology mainly focusing on memory functions. Stimulation chamber used for inducing hypobaric hypoxia. I performed learning, relearning, memory consolidation and memory retrieval of rats following hypoxia. Animal handling, animal behavior analysis, basic neurotoxicity and neurochemical studies were carried out during the doctorate research. The cholinergic system and cognitive behavior have been well familiarized during hypoxia projects.

 First post-doctoral position was offered from University of Turin, Italy where I was focusing on nociceptive pathways and neurotrophic factors using p8-p12 neonatal mice. This study used glial cell derived neurotrophic factors (GDNF) as a molecule to examine the role of analgesic effect. The neurotrophic factors and pain mechanisms have been well familiarized during this project.

The second post-doctoral position was offered from the Department of Neurosciences, School of Medical Sciences, University of Sains Malaysia (USM) in Malaysia. This study was aimed to understand the effect of Normobaric hyperoxia (100% O2) on closed traumatic brain injury in the basal ganglia of mouse models. The stereotactic surgery coordinates at basal ganglia, fluid percussion device for induction of closed brain injury, IntelliCage as automated behavior system, morphology, locomotor behaviors and dopaminergic system has been well familiarized during this project.  

The third post-doctoral position was obtained from the Department of Neuropsychopharmacology, University of Sao Paulo, Brazil. The main theme of this laboratory is to understand the fear and anxiety behavior mediated by antipsychotic drugs through different brain regions. This project made me well familiarized in the field of fear and anxiety behavior and role of dopamine in the mediation of the aversive behavior in the midbrain structures. 

Then, I joined as a senior lecturer (equivalent to the rank of Associate Professor in North American Universities) in the department of Neuroscience, Universiti Sains Malaysia (USM), Malaysia. Based on my expertise, I established a project on stress neurobiology and alcohol addictive behavior in a mouse model. I received two university level short term grants and two national level grants in Malaysia. Also, I was working as a Co-investigator for other projects dealing with intracerebellar hemorrhage mouse model, effect of hypoxia on Semaphorin family in human hippocampal astrocytes, effects of Centella asiatica on learning and memory, effects of Tualang honey supplement on memory performance and human TB project. I supervised 4 master students and 1 Ph.D student.  Also, I have been a co-supervisor for 8 master students. I have experience in project management, supervising students, and administrative work.  

Again, I was offered a post-doctoral position in the College of Pharmacy, University of Houston to study the role of presynaptic proteins in alcohol addiction. Currently, I have been working as an Instructor in Radiology, Houston Methodist Research Institute to study the neuroinflammatory markers in the various neurological disorders using PET/MRI imaging in mice and humans. Also, I am involved in a clinical trial for 18F-SMBT-1 in healthy and Alzheimer’s disease patients. On the other hand, I am working on a NAFLD mice model using PET/MRI using PET tracer for liver fibrosis and behavior.

Education & Training

PhD, Bharathiar University, Coimbatore, Tamil Nadu, India

Retraction notice to “Hypobaric hypoxia induces dendritic plasticity in cortical and hippocampal pyramidal neurons in rat brain” [Behav. Brain Res. 189/2 (2008) 233–243, (S0166432808000302), (10.1016/j.bbr.2008.01.007)]
Maiti, P, Muthuraju, S, Ilavazhagan, G & Singh, SB 2024, , Behavioural Brain Research, vol. 468, 115016.

Editorial: Substance use disorder: above and beyond addiction
Kumar, J, Mohamed, W, Borroto-Escuela, DO, Sangu, M, Rashid, R, Mohamad Isa, MF & Shanmugam, PK 2024, , Frontiers in Pharmacology, vol. 15, 1426351.

Editorial Expression of Concern: Cholinesterase inhibitors ameliorate spatial learning deficits in rats following hypobaric hypoxia
Muthuraju, S, Maiti, P, Solanki, P, Sharma, AK, Singh, SB, Prasad, D & Ilavazhagan, G 2023, , Experimental Brain Research, vol. 241, no. 3, pp. 937.

Characterisation of Primary Human Hippocampal Astrocyte Cell Culture Following Exposure to Hypoxia
Nazli, NAN, Muthuraju, S, Ahmad, F, Yusoff, AAM, Jaafar, H, Shamsuddin, S & Abdullah, JM 2023, , Malaysian Journal of Medical Sciences, vol. 30, no. 1, pp. 92-106.

Tualang honey-mediated silver nanoparticles attenuate hippocampal oxidative stress in kainic acid-induced male rats
Hasim, H, Salam, SKNM, Rao, PV, Muthuraju, S & Asari, MA 2022, , Biomedical Research and Therapy, vol. 9, no. 12, pp. 5465-5475.

Differential Expression of Presynaptic Munc13-1 and Munc13-2 in Mouse Hippocampus Following Ethanol Drinking
Sangu, M & Ghosh, A 2022, , Neuroscience, vol. 487, no. 166-183, 10.1016/j.neuroscience.2022.02.008, pp. 1-31.

Differential Expression of Presynaptic Munc13-1 and Munc13-2 in Mouse Hippocampus Following Ethanol Drinking
Ghosh, A, Muthuraju, S, Badal, S, Wooden, J, Leasure, JL, Roman, G & Das, J 2022, , Neuroscience, vol. 487, pp. 166-183.

Silver nanoparticles synthesized using Tualang honey ameliorate seizures, locomotor activity, and memory function in KA-induced status epilepticus in male rats
Hasim, H, Salam, SKNM, Rao, PV, Muthuraju, S, Muzaimi, M & Asari, MA 2022, , Biomedical Research and Therapy, vol. 9, no. 9, pp. 5291-5300.

The IntelliCage System: A Review of Its Utility as a Novel Behavioral Platform for a Rodent Model of Substance Use Disorder
Iman, IN, Yusof, NAM, Talib, UN, Ahmad, NAZ, Norazit, A, Kumar, J, Mehat, MZ, Jayabalan, N, Muthuraju, S, Stefaniuk, M, Kaczmarek, L & Muzaimi, M 2021, , Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience, vol. 15, 683780.

Role of toll-like receptor 4 antagonist Lipopolysaccharide-Rhodobacter sphaeroides on acute stress-induced voluntary ethanol preference and drinking behaviour: In vivo Swiss Albino mouse model
Chuang, HG, Aziz, NNHA, Wong, JH, Mustapha, M, Abdullah, JM, Idris, Z, Abdullah, Z, Alrafiah, A & Muthuraju, S 2021, , European Neuropsychopharmacology, vol. 45, pp. 59-72.

The role of mTOR signalling pathway in hypoxia-induced cognitive impairment
Abdo Qaid, EY, Zulkipli, NN, Zakaria, R, Ahmad, AH, Othman, Z, Muthuraju, S & Sasongko, TH 2021, , International Journal of Neuroscience, vol. 131, no. 5, pp. 482-488.

Tualang honey prevents neuronal damage in medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) through enhancement of cholinergic system in male rats following exposure to normobaric hypoxia
Qaid, EYA, Zakaria, R, Yusof, NAM, Sulaiman, SF, Shafin, N, Ahmad, AH, Othman, Z, Al-Rahbi, B & Muthuraju, S 2021, , Bangladesh Journal of Medical Science, vol. 20, no. 1, pp. 122-129.

Acute application of Centella asiatica extract enhanced AMPAR-mediated postsynaptic currents in rat entorhinal cortex
Wong, JH, Reza, F, Muthuraju, S, Chuang, HG, Zhang, J, Senik, MH, Yusof, SR, Mohamad, H, Muhammad, TST, Ismail, NH & Abdullah, JM 2020, , Journal of Integrative Neuroscience, vol. 19, no. 2, pp. 217-227.

Green synthesis and characterization of silver nanoparticles using Tualang honey and evaluation of their antioxidant activities
Hasim, H, Rao, PV, Sekhar, AC, Muthuraju, S, Asari, MA & Sirajudeen, KNS 2020, , Advances in Natural Sciences: Nanoscience and Nanotechnology, vol. 11, no. 2, 025010.

Pretreatment with tualang honey improves brain antioxidant/oxidant status of rats exposed to normobaric hypoxia
Qaid, EYA, Zakaria, R, Yusof, NAM, Sulaiman, SF, Romli, AC, Shafin, N, Ahmad, AH, Othman, Z & Muthuraju, S 2020, , International Medical Journal, vol. 27, no. 6, pp. 728-731.

The Role of Neuroinflammation in Cellular Damage in Neurodegenerative Diseases
Muthuraju, S, Zakaria, R, Karuppan, MKM & Al-Rahbi, B 2020, , BioMed Research International, vol. 2020, 9231452.

Tualang honey ameliorates hypoxia-induced memory deficits by reducing neuronal damage in the hippocampus of adult male sprague dawley rats
Qaid, EYA, Zakaria, R, Mohd Yusof, NA, Sulaiman, SF, Shafin, N, Othman, Z, Ahmad, AH, Abd Aziz, CB & Muthuraju, S 2020, , Turkish Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences, vol. 17, no. 5, pp. 555-564.

Differential expression of entorhinal cortex and hippocampal subfields a-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid (AMPA) and N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptors enhanced learning and memory of rats following administration of Centella asiatica
Wong, JH, Muthuraju, S, Reza, F, Senik, MH, Zhang, J, Mohd Yusuf Yeo, NAB, Chuang, HG, Jaafar, H, Yusof, SR, Mohamad, H, Tengku Muhammad, TS, Ismail, NH, Husin, SS & Abdullah, JM 2019, , Biomedicine and Pharmacotherapy, vol. 110, pp. 168-180.

Assessment of the Levels of Level of Biomarkers of Bone Matrix Glycoproteins and Inflammatory Cytokines from Saudi Parkinson Patients
Alrafiah, A, Al-Ofi, E, Obaid, MT, Alsomali, N & Muthuraju, S 2019, , BioMed Research International, vol. 2019, 2690205.

Cell type specific expression of toll-like receptors in human brains and implications in Alzheimer's disease
Frederiksen, HR, Haukedal, H, Freude, K & Muthuraju, S 2019, , BioMed Research International, vol. 2019, 7420189.