Cesar A. Arias, MD, MSc, PhD

John F. III and Ann H. Bookout Distinguished Chair for Research Excellence, Research Institute
Professor of Medicine, Academic Institute
Full Member, Research Institute
Co-director, Center for Infectious Diseases Research
Houston Methodist
Weill Cornell Medical College


Dr. Cesar Arias has over 25 years of experience in the field of antimicrobial resistance. His career has focused on the clinical and molecular aspects of antimicrobial resistance (AMR) with emphasis on gram-positive organisms. He became interested in infectious disease (ID) because of its prominence as a public health problem and also because ID spans all aspects of clinical medicine. After medical school, he attended the University of London where he focused on clinical microbiology and performed research on the molecular biology of capsule genes in S. pneumoniae, developing molecular tools for capsule typing of this important pathogen. He obtained his PhD at Cambridge in 2000, studying the molecular mechanisms of vancomycin resistance in enterococci. During graduate studies, he discovered a new enzyme and elucidated a novel mechanism for synthesis of D-serine in bacteria. After completing residency at UTHealth McGovern Medical School as well as a fellowship in ID (joint program with UT MD Anderson Cancer Center), he expanded studies on staphylococci and enterococci.

He was the recipient of a K99/R00 NIH Pathway to Independence Award and now holds an NIH K24 mid-career investigator award to increase patient-oriented and mentoring activities on antimicrobial resistance. He has also founded two overseas research units (Molecular Genetics and Antimicrobial Resistance Unit and the International Center for Microbial Genomics) focused on AMR at Universidad El Bosque, Bogota, Colombia. His most recent research has concentrated on elucidating the mechanistic basis of resistance to daptomycin with focus on enterococci and to dissect the molecular epidemiology and clinical impact of multidrug-resistant organisms as part of the NIH-funded Antimicrobial Resistance Leadership Group. A major component of the research on MDR organisms is the use of genomics as a major tool to dissect the molecular epidemiology and population structure of MDR bacteria.


Paenibacillus dendritiformis Meningitis, Brain Abscesses and Cystic Encephalomalacia in an Infant: Case Presentation and Review of the Literature
Tabarani, C, Heresi, GP, Murphy, JR, Al Hammoud, R, Deyanov, A, Dinh, AQ, Arias, CA, Baptista, R, Wanger, A, Shah, MN, Miller, B, Masson, MF, Foster, CE & Hanson, BM 2022, , Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal, vol. 41, no. 12, pp. e544-e547. https://doi.org/10.1097/INF.0000000000003684

LiaF is required for LiaX mediated protection against daptomycin and LL-37 in Enterococcus faecalis OG1RF
Panesso, D, Singh, KV, Villegas, SG, Khan, A, Supandy, A, Nguyen, AH, Rincon, S, Wood, K, Dinh, A, Research, H, Miller, WR, Shamoo, Y, Tran, C & Arias, CA 2022, . in LiaF is required for LiaX mediated protection against daptomycin and LL-37 in Enterococcus faecalis OG1RF. <https://www.eventscribe.net/2022/IDWeek/searchGlobal.asp>

Paenibacillus dendritiformis meningitis, brain abscesses and cystic encephalomalacia in an infant: Case presentation and review of the literature
Tabarani, C, de Paula Baptista, R, Arias, CA & Deyanov, A 2022, , Journal of the Pediatric Infectious Diseases Society, vol. 41, no. 12, pp. p e544-e547. https://doi.org/10.1097/INF.0000000000003684

Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing for Enterococci
Khan, A, Miller, WR, Axell-House, D, Munita, JM & Arias, CA 2022, , Journal of Clinical Microbiology, vol. 60, no. 9, pp. e0084321. https://doi.org/10.1128/jcm.00843-21

Unravelling complex transposable elements surrounding blaGES-16 in a Pseudomonas aeruginosa ExoU strain
Streling, AP, Cayô, R, Catan, TA, Jové, T, Santos, FF, Nodari, CS, Hanson, B, Miller, WR, Shropshire, W, Dinh, AQ, Ribeiro, J, Pignatari, ACC, Arias, CA & Gales, AC 2022, , Journal of Global Antimicrobial Resistance, vol. 30, pp. 143-147. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jgar.2022.04.009

Prevalence and Characterization of the Cefazolin Inoculum Effect in North American Methicillin-Susceptible Staphylococcus aureus Isolates
CLSI Cefazolin High Inoculum Ad-Hoc Working Group 2022, , Journal of Clinical Microbiology, vol. 60, no. 7. https://doi.org/10.1128/jcm.02495-21

Evolution of Enterococcus faecium in Response to a Combination of Daptomycin and Fosfomycin Reveals Distinct and Diverse Adaptive Strategies
Supandy, A, Mehta, HH, Tran, TT, Miller, WR, Zhang, R, Xu, L, Arias, CA & Shamoo, Y 2022, , Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy, vol. 66, no. 6. https://doi.org/10.1128/aac.02333-21

Consensus on b-Lactamase Nomenclature
Bradford, PA, Bonomo, RA, Bush, K, Carattoli, A, Feldgarden, M, Haft, DH, Ishii, Y, Jacoby, GA, Klimke, W, Palzkill, T, Poirel, L, Rossolini, GM, Tamma, PD & Arias, CA 2022, , Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy, vol. 66, no. 4. https://doi.org/10.1128/aac.00333-22

Reply to Kaye and Belley, "Third-Generation Cephalosporin- Resistant Enterobacterales Are Critical Priority Pathogens, Too!"
Butler, MS, Gigante, V, Sati, H, Paulin, S, Al-Sulaiman, L, Rex, JH, Fernandes, P, Arias, CA, Paul, M, Thwaites, GE, Czaplewski, L, Alm, RA, Lienhardt, C, Spigelman, M, Silver, LL, Ohmagari, N, Kozlov, R, Harbarth, S & Beyer, P 2022, , Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy, vol. 66, no. 4. https://doi.org/10.1128/aac.00223-22

Accessory Genomes Drive Independent Spread of Carbapenem- Resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae Clonal Groups 258 and 307 in Houston, TX
Shropshire, WC, Dinh, AQ, Earley, M, Komarow, L, Panesso, D, Rydell, K, Gómez-Villegas, SI, Miao, H, Hill, C, Chen, L, Patel, R, Fries, BC, Abbo, L, Cober, E, Revolinski, S, Luterbach, CL, Chambers, H, Fowler, VG, Bonomo, RA, Shelburne, SA, Kreiswirth, BN, van Duin, D, Hanson, BM & Arias, CA 2022, , mBio, vol. 13, no. 2, pp. e0049722. https://doi.org/10.1128/mbio.00497-22

Carbapenem-Resistant Acinetobacter baumannii in U.S. Hospitals: Diversification of Circulating Lineages and Antimicrobial Resistance
Iovleva, A, Mustapha, MM, Griffith, MP, Komarow, L, Luterbach, C, Evans, DR, Cober, E, Richter, SS, Rydell, K, Arias, CA, Jacob, JT, Salata, RA, Satlin, MJ, Wong, D, Bonomo, RA, Van Duin, D, Cooper, VS, Van Tyne, D & Doi, Y 2022, , mBio, vol. 13, no. 2. https://doi.org/10.1128/mbio.02759-21

Analysis of the Clinical Pipeline of Treatments for Drug-Resistant Bacterial Infections: Despite Progress, More Action Is Needed
Butler, MS, Gigante, V, Sati, H, Paulin, S, Al-Sulaiman, L, Rex, JH, Fernandes, P, Arias, CA, Paul, M, Thwaites, GE, Czaplewski, L, Alm, RA, Lienhardt, C, Spigelman, M, Silver, LL, Ohmagari, N, Kozlov, R, Harbarth, S & Beyer, P 2022, , Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy, vol. 66, no. 3, e01991-21. https://doi.org/10.1128/aac.01991-21

Clinical outcomes and bacterial characteristics of carbapenem-resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae complex among patients from different global regions (CRACKLE-2): a prospective, multicentre, cohort study
Multi-Drug Resistant Organism Network Investigators 2022, , The Lancet Infectious Diseases, vol. 22, no. 3, pp. 401-412. https://doi.org/10.1016/S1473-3099(21)00399-6

Evaluation of Bacteriophage-Antibiotic Combination Therapy for Biofilm-Embedded MDR Enterococcus faecium
Lev, K, Coyne, AJK, Kebriaei, R, Morrisette, T, Stamper, K, Holger, DJ, Canfield, GS, Duerkop, BA, Arias, CA & Rybak, MJ 2022, , Antibiotics, vol. 11, no. 3, 392. https://doi.org/10.3390/antibiotics11030392

Contemporary Clinical and Molecular Epidemiology of Vancomycin-Resistant Enterococcal Bacteremia: A Prospective Multicenter Cohort Study (VENOUS I)
Contreras, GA, Munita, JM, Simar, S, Luterbach, C, Dinh, AQ, Rydell, K, Sahasrabhojane, PV, Rios, R, Diaz, L, Reyes, K, Zervos, M, Misikir, HM, Sanchez-Petitto, G, Liu, C, Doi, Y, Abbo, LM, Shimose, L, Seifert, H, Gudiol, C, Barberis, F, Pedroza, C, Aitken, SL, Shelburne, SA, Van Duin, D, Tran, TT, Hanson, BM & Arias, CA 2022, , Open Forum Infectious Diseases, vol. 9, no. 3, ofab616. https://doi.org/10.1093/ofid/ofab616

LiaX is Essential for Cell Envelope Adaptation via the LiaFSR System in Enterococcus faecium
Tran, C, Arias, CA & Panesso, D 2022, , 5th Texas Medical Center Conference on Antimicrobial Resistance and Stewardship Conference, Houston, United States, 1/19/22 - 1/21/22.

Emergence of Clinical Clostridioides difficile Isolates With Decreased Susceptibility to Vancomycin
Darkoh, C, Keita, K, Odo, C, Oyaro, M, Brown, EL, Arias, CA, Hanson, BM & DuPont, HL 2022, , Clinical infectious diseases : an official publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America, vol. 74, no. 1, pp. 120-126. https://doi.org/10.1093/cid/ciaa912

Real-World Performance of Susceptibility Testing for Ceftolozane/Tazobactam against Non-Carbapenemase- Producing Carbapenem-Resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa
Rivas, L, Alcalde-Rico, M, Martínez, JRW, Moreno, MV, Rojas, P, Wozniak, A, García, P, Olivares-Pacheco, J, Miller, WR, Arias, CA, Khan, A & Munita, JM 2022, , Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy, vol. 66, no. 1, e01657-21. https://doi.org/10.1128/AAC.01657-21

Evaluation of Bacteriophage Cocktails Alone and in Combination with Daptomycin against Daptomycin-Nonsusceptible Enterococcus faecium
Morrisette, T, Lev, KL, Canfield, GS, Duerkop, BA, Kebriaei, R, Stamper, KC, Holger, D, Lehman, SM, Willcox, S, Arias, CA & Rybak, MJ 2022, , Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy, vol. 66, no. 1, e01623-21. https://doi.org/10.1128/AAC.01623-21

Emergence and Transmission of Daptomycin and Vancomycin-Resistant Enterococci Between Patients and Hospital Rooms
El Haddad, L, Hanson, BM, Arias, CA, Ghantoji, SS, Harb, CP, Stibich, M & Chemaly, RF 2021, , Clinical Infectious Diseases, vol. 73, no. 12, pp. 2306-2313. https://doi.org/10.1093/cid/ciab001