Clinical Assessment of Jaw Orientation

Banner for Contemporary Surgical Planning for Jaw Deformities

During the physical examination, the pitch, roll, and yaw of the jaws is assessed in relation to the frame of reference of the entire face—the system defined by the median, axial, and coronal planes.7 Pitch is difficult to measure clinically and is best assessed with radiographic cephalometry. Roll and yaw are related to symmetry and are discussed in the following section.

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